Since any such kind intention was foreign to Agrippinas nature,
and a fortiori at the dreadful moment that we are considering, we may assume
that her purpose was different the comic actors were to bear witness in the public
market-place that the Emperor had not been killed but was in truth desperately
ill, and the Hippocratic facies that we know he must have manifested gave them
full warranty for such a report. es in all stages of
development were found in the lower regions of
Bavaria (MTB 7542). Interspersed with grass, the
mushrooms grew along a 100-yard stretch right
next to an old garbage dump forming colonies,
some small and others larger, that were partially
intertwined. They were found scattered
across decaying plant materials, such as leaves,
twigs and mulch. There were greenish and
distinctly bluish stains on the caps, and most
notably a bluish color near the base of the stem.
Other fruiting bodies quickly developed blue
stains in reaction to being handled, even in very
The description of Psilocybe cyanescens
below is somewhat condensed, but essentially
applies to all other collections, while the relative
measures and sizes may vary:
Caps: 5-40 mm broad, conic at first, with
cortinate fibrils ascending steeply to the stem, but
fading quickly, bell-shaped later on, partially with
an acute umbo. Later expanding to plane, with
undulating or wavy margins, no remnants of veil,
also broadly convexed to umbonate in older
mushrooms. Deep chestnut brown when fresh and
moist, fading to a whitish color when drying, with
stains of bluish to blue-green coloration.
Gills: Attachment adnate to broadly
subdecurrent, color light to dirty beige when
young, later on changing to cinnamon-purple
brownish color due to maturation of spores. Blue
staining reaction is slight in response to pressure.
Stem: 30-85 mm long, uniformally thick at 1.5-3
mm. Stems and mycelial fibers turn blue in
response to touch, if blue stains not already
Odor: Somewhat like flour or potatoes.
Spores: 6-8 x 9-14 u.
In 1976, bluing mushrooms growing on
plant debris were found in the Saarland region of
Germany. Other collections came from the
Southern regions of the Black Forest (MTB 7515,
1959, 1963), as well as the Vogtland area (1979)
and the Rheinland area (MTB 4706, 1982).
Similar mushrooms were also discovered near
Hamburg (MTB 2428, 1983) and Bremen (1982,
1983). The latter collections are especially
interesting, because the greenhouses at the
Rhododendron Park and People's Park in those
cities provided layers of wood chips during the
fall which enabled the mushrooms to fruit much
more prolifically (thousands of mushrooms) than
they did naturally in surrounding areas, where the
species was also fruiting in several locations.
These findings most likely indicate the presence
of a similar, imported species, because native
fruiting bodies require exposure to the shock of
colder temperatures of fall in order to develop
from the mycelia. For instance, other wood
chipdwelling species have been reported from
the Pacific Northwest of the U.S., such as
Psilocybe stundi, Psilocybe baeocystis,
Psilocybe pelliculosa and others (also see
Chapter 7.1). Psilocybe caerulescens Murr.
from Mexico is also related to these species.
This was the first Psilocybe mushroom to be
recognized as psychoactive by Wasson in
recreational users of Psilocybe cubensis (when grown in vitro) require a dosage of 1 to 2 gm of dried mushrooms to produce an altered state of consciousness; a clinical dosage for Psilocybe cubensis, on the other hand, had previously been reported as ranging from 3 to 5 gm of dried material. This dosage would be comparable to the amount of fungal material consumed for religious purposes in a Mazatec Indian healing and curing ceremony.
In 1982, one research team "found that the level of psilocybin and psilocin varies over a factor of 4 among various in vitro cultures of Psilocybe cubensis, while specimens from outdoors varied tenfold." A fresh dosage of Psilocybe cubensis in Australia would be approximately from 1 to 2 large mushrooms weighing up to as much as one fresh ounce, or as many as from 25 to 50 small mushrooms equaling the same weight amount. Ethnopharmacologist Jonathan Ott (1976, 1993) noted that he has observed "the ingestion of from 0.5 gm to 5.9 gm dried weight (10 gm to 40 gm fresh)", of various species of Psilocybe. Dosage for Psilocybe subcubensis would be the same as for Psilocybe cubensis.
Both of these latter two species are macroscopically alike.
The usual dosage for Copelandia cyanescens required to induce psychedelic visual effects ranges from 1 to 3 large specimens (cap diameter c. 5 mm), or as many as 5 to l0 medium-sized mushrooms (cap diameter c. 2.5 mm); however, personal tolerance to this species may loc:NL
occur with continued use, and some who consume large amounts of this mushroom have reportedly ingested as many as 50 to 200 fresh specimens of various sizes.
visions and we travelled together around the word
as well the spiritual realm. She made a clearly
telepathic statement about my hometown, which I
could not fathom or
interpret at the time, nor could I do so later on.
While under the impression that the thinking
process itself was something supernatural, I was
filled with confidence when I realized without a
doubt that death itself was but a levitation of the
soul, which may or may not entail looking down
upon the "normal" world. I did, however,
anxiously reject her offer to see into my future and
tell me about what she learned. Yet 1 knew that
she was already seeing such things.
The above account vividly illustrates the
cosmic-mystical aspects of the mushrooms'
effects. Such effects have frequently been
described following ingestion of high doses of
hallucinogens, especially in cautious and
protective environments ("setting") coupled with a
positive, internal mood ("set") primed by careful
preparation. Of course, the detailed content of such
experiences varies across individuals. Pahnke's
masterful study during Good Friday Services in
1962 has become a famous event in the history of
research into these states of consciousness.
Three years later, a remarkable range of
effects was observed in the same participant of an
experiment conducted in Prague, where mycelia
from Psilocybe bohemica were used. Due to an
analytical error, the four participants each ingested
72 mg of psilocybin, plus some psilocin, instead of
the intended dosage of 30 mg of psilocybin each:
Days before the experiment, I already
began to suspect that this experience would not
evolve as smoothly as it had three years ago, given
the amount of personal stress I had suffered over
the previous two months. However, I had faith in
the expertise provided by psychiatric guidance.
Prior to the experiment, I asked the psychiatrist
about the possible causes underlying my seeming
inability to fully experience the unfolding of visual
imagery. He brushed aside my question with a
short and terse reply : "Resistance", which only
heightened my feelings of anxious tension.
After ingestion of the hot preparation,
fifteen minutes passed until the sudden onset of its
effects. I ceased to perceive the music and sank
into an autistic state devoid of visions which
lasted for three hours. This state was subjectively
experienced as one of confusion with a partial
loss of consciousness as well as the loss of a
sense of time and place. This torturous period,
however, did not include any rough somatic
disturbances. After I woke up, I felt like a broken
machine; only the compassion of the other
participants, which were also suffering, helped to
clear my head temporarily. My experimenter
attempted to counterbalance these effects and to
provide a firmly grounded focus of reality, but his
efforts were unsuccessful in the long run. I felt as
if I was extremely drunk, except there was none of
th Loc Nl Sapo Nl Loc
While concerned Australian mycologists have long been interested in the accidental ingestion of poisonous mushrooms by
unsuspecting foragers, they have been well aware since the late l930s, that some mushrooms induce strange psychological reactions in humans when eaten, and that individuals who
had consumed these mushrooms had also reported queer disturbances of vision. Helder Jnb Sapo Pt