What has given rise to the tradition among
mycologists that mushrooms brought about her end We believe the source is to
be found in a footnote that appears on page in of Jean-Jacques Paulets classic
Traits, des Champignons, published in Paris in 1793, reading as follows
Laccident arrive a la veuve du czar Alexis, qui sempoisonna avec des champignons
quon avait gardes pour le careme, et rapporte par Miiller, est de notre siecle. Amanita muscaria and a related species Amanita pantherina are used in the United States as a recreational drug source. The former species which
is used traditionally by several aborigine tribal groups in Siberia and some members of the Ojibway clan in Northern Michigan, United States and
Ontario, Canada, may also be the Soma drug-plant of the Rig Veda the ancient Hindu scriptures. Dr. Malcolm C.
mail casenterpriseprojects.co.u loc:NL Mail M Mail Dk oped symptoms of
intoxication, such as markedly dilated pupils,
spontaneous laughter and delirium. The progression
of symptoms was experienced as wave-like, with
cycles of increasing and fading intensity. In
addition, the father's visual perception was affected
so that everything around him appeared to be black
- a frightening experience he believed to presage his
Even though two family members (ages 12
and 18) consumed only small amounts of the
cooked mushrooms, the ensuing symptoms of
intoxication were no different from those observed
in family members who had eaten comparatively
larger portions. After several hours, the psychic and
perceptual disturbances subsided and finally
disappeared, without any lingering side effects.
Attempts to treat acute symptoms included
administration of emetics and fortifying tonics. In
the end, these potions were heralded as the crucial
treatment that "cured" the family.
For the most part it is extremely difficult, if
not impossible, to assemble complete and accurate
details on many aspects of magic mushroom history
from source materials available today. Thus, it is an
instance of rare good fortune and a boon to
mushroom historians that E. Brande's description of
a typical psilocybin syndrome was augmented by J.
Sowerby, author of "Coloured Figures of English
Fungi or Mushrooms" (London, 1803). Sowerby's
book included a rendition and description of the
mushroom species responsible for the poisoning
case described by Brande (see p. 17). Within the
context of Sowerby's book, only the variety of
mushrooms distinguished by their cone-shaped
caps were believed to cause intoxication. Figure
9 shows a typical rendition of Psilocybe
semilanceata. This mushroom species was
known to Sowerby's contemporaries as
"Agaricus glutinosus Curtis" and its descriptions
are fully compatible with current knowledge
about Psilocybe semilanceata.
A few years later, renowned Swedish
mycologist E. Fries referred to "Agaricus
semilanceatus" in his book entitled "Observationes
Mycologicae" (1818). Later on, the
same mushroom also appeared under the names
Coprinarius semilanceatus Fr. or Panaeolus
semilanceatus (Fr.) Lge. Not until 1870 did
Kummer and Quelet classify this mushroom as
a member of the genus Psilocybe.
Consequently, two valid designations may be
found in the literature:
-- Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) Kumm. or --
-- Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) Quel.
Around 1900, M. C. Cooke reported two or
three new instances of accidental mushroom
intoxication involving children in England.
Interestingly, Cooke noted that symptoms were
caused only by a variety of mushroom known to
turn blue (var. caerulescens). He
was the first mycologist to wonder if a bluing
variety of this species was poisonous, or if the
bluish color was induced by external factors,
causing changes in the mushroom's chemical
composition so as to render them poisonous.
mail feesc.org.br loc:NL
e creek on wood chips of
Carpinus, Alnus and Salix, on raw compost
mixtures of Picea, Pinus and Larix needles,
Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan.
Figure 21 - Fruiting curve of Psilocybe
cyanescens based on observations at several
locations in the former Czechoslovakia. Growkit Mushroom
The mycelia make use of different kinds
of plant debris and even grow on wet cardboard,
where they develop into rhizomorphs just like
they would in nature. Rhizomorphs are thick
strands of mycelia that serve to transport
nutrients and water.
They also develop intense
blue stains (see Figure 22).
Distribution pattern of Psilocybe
cyanescens in Germany and adjacent areas
(according to Krieglsteiner). Locations are
indicated by black dots.
rhizomorphs growing on
Figure 24 - Psilocybe cyanescens at a natural location (USA).
Figure 25 - Psilocybe bohemica on twigs and leaves.
Psilocybe bohemica is a very psychoactive
Its effects are vividly documented in the
following account of one natural scientist's
experience as part of controlled clinical trials in
About 30 mg of psilocybin in mushroom
tissue was prepared in hot water, with effects
already noticeable ten minutes after ingestion. I
grew increasingly quiet. At first, my legs began to
tingle, then my underarms as well. Aside from a
deeper breathing rhythm, few other somatic effects
were noted. Initially there were fits of laughter
caused by unusual cognitive associations; this
laughter also affected the two "sober" guides.
growing hyperacuity interfered with the ability to
listen to music, so that Vivaldi's "Springtime"
caused painful stabs inside the brain. I compared
the pain to that caused by a "sawing knife". The
experimenters appeared bloated and yellow...
Existing bodily characteristics, such as thinning
hair stimulated a person's illusionary
transformation into a monk with tonsure. Their
voices also appeared reverent and, from a
somewhat paranoid point of view, these gentlemen
at times seemed to be working a switching station
that, for some reasons, was my enemy. At the same
time, I found both of them to be quite likeable.
During this time period, the other female subject
perceived fantastic images of moving colors and
saw visions of her whole life unfolding behind
closed eyes. During this period, I had the distinct
impression that an electrical current was flowing
through my body, which was not an uncomfortable
sensation. About three hours later, the gentlemen
retired to the kitchen and the nature of the
experience changed quite drastically.
At first I felt as if my legs were increasingly
merging into the wall, a very comfortable
experience. In a state of utter clarity of
consciousness, I finally felt as if I had no body at all.
I said. "The most descriptive expression is the
experience of a pure soul".
Using words as triggers,
we were able to induce shared experiences o
mail mail.qibao.sh.cn loc:NL
For example, three species of deadly poisonous Galerinas, and Conocybe filaris, which are extremely poisonous mushrooms, are
commonly found in mulched gardens in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and other regions of the world, and have been observed
sharing the same habitat as Psilocybe baeocystis, Psilocybe cyanescens, and Psilocybe stuntzii.
Another example of misidentification involves Chlorophyllum molybdites also known as green gills or Morgans Lepiota. LOC GDECOM NL BR NL MAIL
panaeolus mushroom kentucky Psilocybecubensisadelaide