Other effects often include Decreased salivation and
appetite uncontrollable laughter transient sexual feelings and synesthesias
mail optorun.sh.cn loc:NL e.g., seeing sounds.
For comparison with the clinical experience described above, the following is an excerpt from one of R. Gordon Wassons experience with psilocybin mushrooms
The mushrooms take effect
mail optorun.sh.cn loc:NL
mail huttrep.co.nz loc:NL with different persons.
For example, some seem to experience only a divine euphoria, which may translate itself into uncontrollable
, this "fool's mushroom" was documented in
Slovakia as well. In addition, the mushroom found
its way into the verses of Polish poet Vaclav
Potocki (1625-1699), who refers to its potential of
"causing foolishness much like opium does ".
Similarly, in England, John Parkinson's
"Theatricum Botanicum" (1640) includes details
about a 'foolish mushroom ".
The Austrian colloquial expression "He
ate those madness-inducing mushrooms" refers to
states of mental confusion.
Historic source materials such as these
are scarce and widely scattered. Undoubtedly, they
refer to psychotropic mushrooms, but lack
sufficient information to permit clear identification
of a specific species. However, considering the
habitats and occurrence of Psilocybe semilanceata
and Psilocybe bohemica, these two species are
among the most likely candidates (see page 16 ff.).
It is remarkable that these historic portrayals
revolve around just one aspect of the mushrooms'
overall effects: the occasional semi-schizophrenic
reaction which can at times be quite dramatic.
None of these accounts reflect a distinct
appreciation of mushrooms in the tradition of the
Mexican Indians ("teonanacatl" = flesh of the
Between Reverence and Fear
By contrast, in Europe we find that the
symptoms of mushroom intoxication have always
been compared to symptoms of mental illness.
Such cross-cultural differences in value judgments
can be explained in terms of two concepts
introduced by R.G. Wasson and his wife:
mycophilia and mycophobia. This distinction subdivides
cultures with different traditional attitudes
towards mushrooms into two groups. For instance,
an entrenched dislike for mushrooms (mycophobia)
in Britain indicates traditional beliefs vastly
different from those found in Slavic countries,
where mushrooms are generally cherished
(mycophilia). The origins and evolution of such
diverging attitudes remain lost in the shadows of
The development of early cultural taboos
and prohibitions against psychotropic mushrooms
may be the root cause of enduring mycophobic
behavior. On the other hand, it is possible that,
thousands of years ago, the process of harvesting
mushrooms as a food source caused alarming
clusters of regionally isolated cases of fatal
mushroom poisonings. Such experiences may well
have seeded a potent and lasting aversion towards
an entire country's mycoflora.
Similarly, the mycophilia typical of
ancient Mexican cultures goes hand in hand with a
general social acceptance of the effects of
Psilocybe mushrooms and their established ritual
usages. Among Mexican Indian tribes, the effects
of psilocybin have never been causally linked to
any type of known mental illness. It is interesting
to note that the Indians of Mexico were the only
Indians in the Americas who also harvested a large
number of mushroom species for food.
Unfortunately, our current socio-political
climate is - strongly biased against newly
discov loc:NL greeningsa.org.au
The mycophile watches with astonishment as the
author, by a very act of creation, invents his mushroom and clothes it with
precisely those attributes that the plot requires. It appears in the spring the
daffodils are in bloom and Easter is yet to come.
It grows fast, progressing noticeably in the
course of a nights
rain. A cluster of nine serves as the lethal dose, but the playwright suggests that
fewer would have sufficed.
Mail Conalepsin.Edu.Mx Loc:Nl
Loc:Nl Loc:Nl Loc:Nl Mailtelmadesignercombr
The major limitations upon their use, particularly the use of A muscaria, is the severe nausea and
violent vomiting which follow ingestion. In New Zealand, attempts have been made to reduce this
effect by peeling the red skin from the cap, and by drying the mushrooms in the sun for several
days. These preparation methods have not proven to be successful, and hence the mushroom is
ingested only by the poorly informed, although it is quite wide spread in its distribution. Th Loc Pmgroup Co Th Th
lose relative of Mexico's
psychoactive species, Psilocybe semilanceata is
a mushroom whose physical appearance
resembles Psilocybe semperviva Heim &
Cailleux and Psilocybe
Stalks generally single, sometimes clustered, from two to four inches in
height, the thickness of a goose quill, thread shaped whitish almost solid, the
tube being very small, glutinous; ring, a little below the cap, scarce
“ Cap, from one to two inches in breadth, of a brown color; in the full. grown
ones hemispherical, always convex, and more or lets glutinous; wet with
rain, it becomes browner and transparent,'so that it sometimes appears
“ Gills numerous, single, of a brownish purple color, clouded; whole ones
about twenty, horizontal, three shorter ones placed betwixt them; they throw
out a powder of a brownish purple color."
With respect to the use of it, he only says, « There is nothing acrimonious or
disagreeable in its taste, yet its appearance will not recommend it to the
lovers of mushrooms."
Figure 9 - Drawing and description of Psilocybe semilanceata by J. Sowerby (London, 1803).
1733. A. semilanceatus Fries (Observ. II. pag. 178).
Synon. : Agaricus semiglobatus Sowerby (Engl. Fungi taf. 240.
fig. 1-3). Hut etwas hautig, spitz kegelfdrmig, fast zugespitzt, 11/2 Cent.
breit, 1/2 Cent. hock, feucht klebrig, fein streifig, gelb oder grunlich,
zah, mit Anfangs umgeknicktem Rande und leicht trennbarer Oberhaut.
Stiel zah, gebogen, 11 Cent. hock, kahl, blass. Lamellen angeheftet,
aufsteigend, purpur-schwarz. Sporen ellptisch, hellbraun, 9 -16 u
lang, 4 - 9 u dick.
Ax Wegen, auf Grasphitzen, besonders wo Mist gelegen hat.
spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf (Psilocybe semilanceata). Kegel-glockenformig mit
papilenertiger spitze Hut-o,5-1 cm breit, bis 2cm hock, lehmfarben mit olivgrunem
Stich, klebrig. Lamellen breit, oliv-lehmfarben, spater purpurbraun.
Stiel schlank, glanzend. - Gedungte Wiesen, Wegrander. Stellenweise.
Figure 10 - Two descriptions of Psilocybe semilanceata from the German-language
literature. The first description (top) was written over a hundred years ago, while the
second one (bottom) dates to 1962. Significantly, the more recent entry classifies the
species as "essentially worthless". Also see Figure 11.
mexicana Heim. Like Psilocybe semilanceata, these
Mexican species thrive in meadows and pastures.
Another common trait among these species is the
rather subdued and subtle quality of their bluing
reaction. Recognition of these similarities with
Mexican species sparked the curiosity of scientists
who wanted to learn more about Europe's
Psilocybe species. A research team that included
A. Hofmann and R. Heim began to study samples
of Psilocybe semilanceata, in collaboration with C.
Furrer, a mycologist who examined fruiting bodies
collected in Switzerland and France. By 1963,
paper chromatography testing had yielded data of
historic significance. For the first time, scientists